Identification of the different parts of an embryo of a dicot seed (Pea, gram or red kidney bean)


To identify the different parts of an embryo of a dicot seed (pea, gram or red kidney

Materials Required

Seeds of bengal gram/red kidney bean, forceps, cloth, magnifying glass, petridish, water.



  • Soak a few bean seeds and keep them overnight.
  • Drain the excess water.
  • Cover the seeds with a moist cloth and keep them aside for a day.
  • Peel off the seed coat carefully.
  • Using your thumbs or the forceps, open the bean seed so that it falls into two halves.
  • With the help of the magnifying glass, locate the parts of the bean embryo carefully.
  • Draw a sketch of the inside of the dicot seed that you examined. Label all its parts.


  • Been seed is kidney-shaped with a concave and convex side.
  • The concave side which is slightly darker has a scar called hilum.
  • Adjacent to hilum a small pore known as micropyle is present.
  • The seed is covered by a seed coat.
  • The embryo consists of two large, white and kidney-shaped cotyledons.
  • The cotyledons are attached laterally to the curved embryonal axis.
  • Rod shaped and slightly bulgy lower end of embryonal axis which lies towards micropylar end is called radicle.
  • Plumule is the upper end of embryonal axis.
  • The part of embryo axis between radicle and attachment of cotyledon leaves is called hypocotyl.
  • The part of embryo axis between plumule and attachment of cotyledon leaves is called epicotyl.


  • The embryo of dicot seeds consists of three main parts – plumule, radicle and two cotyledons.


  • The cloth which is used to cover seeds should be moist and should not get dry.
  • Seeds should be open carefully so that the embryo does not get damaged.

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