Class 8 Crop Production and Management Notes

Crop Production and Management Notes


When plants of the same kind are grown and cultivated at one place on a large scale, it is called a crop.

Types of crops:-

  • Kharif Crops:- The crops which are sown in the rainy season are called kharif crops.
    Their time period is generally from June to September.
    Ex:- Paddy, maize, soyabean, groundnut, cotton etc.
  • Rabi crops:- The crops grown in the winter season are called rabi crops.
    Their time period is generally from October to March.
    Ex :- Wheat, gram, pea, mustard, linseed etc.

Agricultural practices:-

Cultivation of crops involves several activities undertaken by farmers over a period of time. These activities are referred as agricultural practices.

Activities involved in agricultural practices are:-

  1. Preparation of soil
  2. Sowing
  3. Adding manure and fertilisers
  4. Irrigation
  5. Protecting from weeds
  6. Harvesting
  7. Storage

Preparation of soil:-

  • Preparation of soil involves loosening and turning of soil.
  • Loosening of soil helps the roots of the plants to penetrate deep into the soil.
  • It allows the roots to breathe easily.
  • The loosened soil helps in the growth of earthworms and friendly microbes present in the soil.
  • These organisms also help to loosen the soil and add humus to it.

Tilling / Ploughing:- The process of loosening and turning
of the soil is called tilling or ploughing.
The main tools used for this are plough, hoe and cultivator.


  • The process of planting the seeds in the soil is called sowing.
  • Good quality of seeds (clean and healthy seeds) are selected before sowing.
  • The main tools used for sowing seeds are traditional tool and seed drill.

Adding manure and fertilisers:-

The substances which are added to the soil in the form of nutrients for the healthy growth of plants are called manure and fertilisers.

Advantages of manure:-

The organic manure is considered better than fertilisers because it

  • enhances the water holding capacity of the soil.
  • makes the soil porous due to which exchange of gases becomes easy.
  • increases the number of friendly microbes.
  • improves the texture of the soil.

Differences between Fertiliser and Manure:-

A fertiliser is an inorganic salt.
Ex:- urea, ammonium sulphate, super phosphate, potash, NPK
(Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium)
Manure is a natural substance obtained by the decomposition of cattle dung,
human waste and plant residues.
A fertiliser is prepared in factories.Manure can be prepared in the fields.
A fertiliser does not provide any humus to the soil.Manure provides a lot of humus to the soil.
Fertilisers are very rich in plant nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.Manure is relatively less rich in plant nutrients.

The fertility and the nutrients of the soil can be maintained by :-

  • adding manure
  • field fallow (leaving the field uncultivated in between two crops)
  • crop rotation (growing different crops alternatively)


The supply of water to crops at different intervals is called irrigation.

Sources of irrigation:-

The sources of irrigation are— wells, tubewells, ponds, lakes, rivers, dams and canals.

Traditional Methods of Irrigation:-

The various traditional ways of irrigation are-

  • moat (pulley-system)
  • chain pump
  • dhekli, and
  • rahat (Lever system)

Modern Methods of Irrigation:-

Modern methods of irrigation help us to use water economically. The main methods used are –

  • Sprinkler System:- In this system, water passes through a network of pipes which then escapes from rotating nozzles and gets sprinkled on the crop as if it is raining.
    • This system is more useful on the uneven land where sufficient water is not available and for sandy soil.
  • Drip system:- In this system, the water falls drop by drop just at the position of the roots. So it is called drip system.

Protection from weeds:-

Weeds:- The undesirable plants that grow naturally along with
the crop are called weeds.

Weeding:- The removal of weeds is called weeding.

  • Weeds can be removed or controlled by tiling before sowing, manual removal using khurpi or by using certain chemicals, weedicides.


The cutting of crop after it is mature is called harvesting.

  • Harvesting is done manually by using sickles or by a machine called harvester.

Threshing:- The process of separation of grain seeds from chaff is called threshing.

Winnowing:- The process of separation of grain and chaff with the help of air current is called winnowing.


  • Before storing, the grains are properly dried in the sun to reduce the moisture in them. This prevents the attack by insect pests, bacteria and fungi.
  • Large scale storage of grains is done in silos and granaries to protect them from pests like rats and insects.
  • Dried neem leaves are used for storing food grains at home.

Animal husbandry-

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture that deals with rearing of animals for food, fibre and other products.


The maximum upload file size: 100 MB. You can upload: image. Drop file here