Class 8 Conservation of Plants and Animals Notes

Conservation of Plants and Animals Notes


Deforestation is the process of clearing of forests and using the land for industrial, agricultural and other purposes.


Causes of deforestation :-

  • Procuring lands for cultivation.
  • Building houses and factories.
  • Making furniture or using wood as fuel.
  • Rapid urban development.
  • Natural causes such as Forest fires, Droughts, Acid rains and Volcanic eruptions.

Consequences of deforestation :-

  • It increases temperature and pollution on the earth.
  • It increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
  • It also reduces the level of groundwater.

Global Warming :-

Global warming is the term used to describe the rising of the average temperature on Earth. It has to do with the overall climate of the Earth rather than the weather on any given day.

Droughts :-

A droughts is a phenomenon in which there is deficiency of surface or sub-surface water and rainfall.

Desertification :-

The soil erosion leaves less humus and makes the soil infertile, and gradually that land converts into desert. It is called desertification.

Biosphere :-

The part of earth in which living organism exists or which supports life is known as biosphere.

Biological diversity or Biodiversity :-

The variety of organisms existing on the earth, their interrelationships and their relationships with the environment is called the biological diversity or biodiversity.

Conservation of Biodiversity :-

The conservation of biodiversity is important as it maintains the ecological balance on the earth. It also maintains the soil fertility or prevents soil erosion.

Biodiversity can be conserved by :

  • No cutting trees
  • No hunting animals
  • Creating protected areas for animals like wild life centuries, where no human activities are permitted.

Biosphere Reserve :-

It is a large areas of protected land for conservation of wild life, plant and animal resources and traditional life of the tribals living in the area.

Flora and Fauna :-

 The plants and animals, that are found in a particular area are termed as flora and fauna of that area.

Differences between Flora and Fauna :

Flora :
  • The plants found in a particular area are called flora.
  • Flora is non-motile (not capable of motion) and synthesize its own food.
  • Example-Peepal, sal, banyan.
Fauna :
  • The animals found in a particular area are called fauna.
  • Fauna is motile (capable of motion) and can move from one place to another for food.
  • Example-Deer, Panda.

Species :-

Species is a group of population which are capable of interbreeding. Members of species have common characteristics.

Endemic species :-

Those species of plants arid animals which are found exclusively in a particular area are called endemic species.

For example, sal and wild mango endemic flora of the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve. Animals such as Bison, Indian giant squirrel and fly squirrel are endemic fauna of this area.

Sanctuary :-

These areas where animals are protected from any disturbance to them and their habitat is known as sanctuary.

Wildlife sanctuaries :-

It is the place where wild animals protected from hunting and are provided with suitable living condition.

For example :- Madhumalai wildlife sanctuary in Tamilnadu, Chilika bird sanctuary in Orissa etc.

National Park :-

These reserved for wild life where they can freely use the habitats and natural resources is known as national park.

Projected Tiger :-

A project, that was launched to ensure the survival and maintenance of the tiger population are called Project Tiger.

  • Project Tiger was launched by the government to protect the tigers in the country.

Endangered Animals :-

Many animals living on Earth today are endangered, which means they are at risk of becoming extinct (dying out) on Earth.

For Example – tigers, rhinoceroses, orangutans, turtles, and many more. Their numbers have already been greatly reduced and only a few now live in the wild.

Ecosystem :-

An ecosystem is a geographic area where plants, animals, and other organisms, as well as weather and landscape, work together to form a bubble of life. Ecosystems contain biotic (living) parts, as well as abiotic factors (nonliving parts). Ecosystems can be very large or very small.

Red Data Book :-

It is the sources of book which keeps the records of all the endangered animals and plants.

Migration :-

The periodic movement of animals and birds from their original habitat to other places at a particular time is called migration.

Recycling of paper :-

  • Recycling of paper refers to the process by which waste papers can recycled for reuse.
  • Recycling one tons of paper can save around 17 fully grown trees from being cutting down and also saves landfill space.
  • It saves energy.
  • The amount of harmful chemicals used in paper making will also be reduced.

Reforestation :-

Reforestation is the opposite of deforestation.

Reforestation can be defined as the process of replanting trees and recreation of forests which have been destroyed in the past.

For this people should be encouraged to plant more and more trees.

Reforestation can take place naturally also. If the deforested area is left undisturbed, it reestablishes itself.


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