Class 8 Coal and Petroleum Notes

Coal and Petroleum Notes

Natural Resources:

The resources, that are obtained from nature are called natural resources.
Ex:- air, water, soil and minerals.

Types of Natural resources:-

Inexhaustible/ Renewable Natural Resources:- The resources which are present in unlimited quantity in nature and are not likely to be exhausted by human activities are called inexhaustible natural resources.
Ex:- Sunlight, air.

Exhaustible/Non-renewable Natural Resources:- The resources which are present in limited quantity in nature and can be exhausted by human activities in a limited period of time are called exhaustible natural resources.
Ex:- Forests, wildlife, minerals, coal, petroleum, natural gas etc.

Fossil Fuels:-

The fuels which were formed from the dead remains of living organisms (fossils) are called fossil fuels.
Ex:- Coal, petroleum and natural gas.


Formation of coal:-

Due to natural processes, like flooding, the forests got buried under the soil. As more soil deposited over them, they were compressed. The temperature also rose as they sank deeper and deeper. Under high pressure and high temperature, dead plants got
slowly converted to coal.

carbonisation:- The slow process of conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called carbonisation.

Uses of coal:-

  • Coal is one of the fuels used to cook food.
  • It was used in railway engines to produce steam to run the engine.
  • It is used in thermal power plants to produce electricity.
  • Coal is also used as a fuel in various industries.

Destructive distillation:-

The process of burning of coal at very high temperature in limited supply of oxygen is called destructive distillation.

The materials produced during destructive distillation are:-

  • Coke
  • Coal tar
  • Coal gas


  • It is a tough, porous and black substance.
  • It is almost pure form of Carbon.

Uses of coke:-

  • Coke is used in manufacturing of steel.
  • It is used in the extraction of many metals

Coal tar:-

  • It is a black, thick liquid with unpleasant smell.
  • It is a mixture of about 200 substances.

Uses of coal tar:-

  • It is used for manufacturing synthetic dyes, drugs, explosives, perfumes, plastics, paints, photographic materials, roofing materials, naphthalene balls etc.

Coal gas:-


  • It is used as a fuel in many industries situated near the coal processing plants.


Formation of petroleum:-

As the organisms living in the sea died, their bodies settled at the bottom and got covered with layers of sand and clay. Over millions of years, absence of air, high temperature and high pressure transformed the dead organisms into petroleum and natural gas.

Refining of petroleum:-

The process of separating the various constituents/fractions of petroleum is known as refining.
It is carried out in a petroleum refinery.

Various constituents of petroleum and their uses:-

S. No.Constituents of petroleumUses
1.Petroleum Gas in Liquid form (LPG)Fuel for home and industry
2.PetrolMotor fuel, aviation fuel, solvent for dry cleaning
3.DieselFuel for heavy motor vehicles, electric generators
4.KeroseneFuel for stoves, lamps and for jet aircrafts
5.Lubricating oilLubrication
6.Paraffin waxOintments, candles, vaseline etc.
7.BitumenPaints, road surfacing

Natural gas:-

  • Natural gas is stored under high pressure as compressed natural gas (CNG).
  • It is easy to transport through pipes.
  • It leaves no residue after burning.
  • It is less polluting.
  • It is a cleaner fuel.
  • In India, natural gas has been found in Tripura, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and in the Krishna Godavari delta.

Uses of natural gas:-

  • CNG is used for power generation.
  • It is used as a fuel for transport vehicles.
  • It used as a starting material for the manufacture of a number of chemicals and fertilisers.


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